It is the Study of viruses and viral diseases are known as virology. It has sub microscopic and parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat. Virology is considered as subfield of microbiology. Generally viruses are transmitted through nose. Nasal secretions contain virus particles they are mode of direct transmission or by contaminated objects. An infected person will touch the nose, placing virus on hand. When other person touches their hands or other objects then the virus is transferred to that person.Read More
Study of biological viruses causes diseases in target hosts, generally carried out at the cellular level or molecular level is known viral pathogenesis. It is the important field in virology. Process in which an initial infection leads to a disease is known as pathogenesis. Mechanism of viral pathogenesis includes - implantation of the virus, spread to target organs, local replication, keeping of the viruses into environment. Many factors affect pathogenic mechanisms. Some of them are Virulence characteristics of the virusRead More
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. A virus must attach to a living cell and taken inside and manufacture its proteins and copy its genome then find a way to escape the cell so that the virus can infect other cells. Viruses can infect only certain species of hosts and only certain cells within that host. Cells that a virus may use to replicate are called permissive. Humans body usually response to the viruses by activating the immune system. Host cells are the living system in which the carrier of rDNA molecule or vector can be propagated. Host cells can be prokaryotic or eukaryoticRead More
Study of viruses on molecular level is known as molecular virology. They are sub microscopic parasites it replicates inside the host cell. Molecular virology and antigenic characteristics of HIV-1 have been explained clearly. HIV-1-infected individuals cannot destroy the infection, and also there are no called natural immune correlates of protection. In a clinical molecular virology, the discovery of the hepatitis C virus as an etiologic agent of chronic hepatitis resulted from the direct cloning of the viral nucleic acid important to identify or development of a serologic test. Viral vaccines have inactivated viruses which have completely lost their capacity to replicate. These vaccines can be prevented or lower the intensity of viral illnessRead More
Study of viruses in non-human animals are known as veterinary virology. It is main branch of veterinary medicine.Rhabdoviruses are a very different family of single stranded, negative sense RNA viruses that infect wide range of hosts, from plants and insects, to fish and mammals. The Rhabdoviruses family contains six genera, in which two are cytohabdoviruses and nucleohabdoviruses, only infects plants. Novirhabdoviruses infect fish, and vesiculovirus, lyssavirus and ephemerovirus infect mammals, fish and invertebratesRead More
Viruses are small particles of genetic materials. Those are surrounded by a protein coat. Some viruses also have a fatty “envelope” covering. Viral infection is a proliferation of harmful virus inside the body. Viruses cannot reproduce without the assistant of host cell. Viruses infect a host by introducing their genetic material into the cells. A virus makes the copies of itself and bursts the host cell. Certain viruses like the once that cause chicken pox and cold sores may be inactive. Virus infections can be confirmed by multiple methods. A wide variety of samples can be used for virological testingRead More
Plant virology is a field of plant pathology and environmental sciences. It deals with viruses and virus like pathogens and diseases. Most plant viruses are RNA although some viruses are DNA viruses. Basically plant viruses Genomes are comprises in coding and non-coding region. Coding region is expressing the protein required to vital infection cycle.
Plant viruses are wide spread and that effect plants. Plants viruses are pathogenic to higher plants. These are normally insects, but some fungi. Plant viruses are harmless to human and other animals. The morphology, genome structureRead More
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease and it is made from killed forms of the microbes. Vaccination is a method of administration of antigenic material into a living mechanism. The virus inserted into the body to stimulate actual infection. The clinical effect desired to cause stimulation of an individual’s immune system. The vaccination is the most important method of prevention for infectious diseases. Vaccine adjuvants which accelerate the immune responses to an antigenRead More
Infectious diseases are disorders caused by microorganism. Such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasite. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. Some infectious diseases can be passed from one person to another person. Some are transmitted by bites from insects or animals. And others are acquired by ingesting contaminated food or water or being exposed to organism in the environment. They are normally harmless or even helpful, but certain conditions, some organisms may causes disease. Pathogens cause disease either by disrupting the bodies normal process and stimulating the immune system to produce a defensive response, resulting in higher fever, inflammation and other symptoms.
Viral isolation is the most reliable evidence of infection. Many of which can be grown on artificial the nutrient medium , viruses require a living host cell for replication .Infected host cell can be cultured and grown , and then the growth medium can be harvested as a sources of viruses. Virions in the liquid medium can be separated from the host cell by either centrifugation or filtration. Cultured cells , eggs and laboratory animals may be used for virus isolation .Although embroyonated eggs and laboratory animals are very useful for isolation of certain viruses, cell cultures are the sole system for virus isolation in most laboratories. Living cells are essential for virus isolation. Primary cultures are maintained by changing the fluid 2 or 3 times a week. Cells from primary culture can often be transferred serially a number of timesRead More
Viral infections spread based on the ability of viruses to overcome the multiple barriers and move from cell to cell, tissue to tissue, and person to person. There are the fundamental differences between these types of transmission. Cell to cell contact contributes success of viral infection. Mode of transmission may occur by direct contact, indirect contact. It is a common way for spread of viruses from one person to another. This can occur when an individual with virus touches , kisses, or cough or sneeze on someone who isn’t infected being bitten or scratched by an infected animal, even pat, can make you sick and in extreme circumstances can be fatal. A pregnant woman may pass germs causes infectious disease to her unborn babyRead More
Viral respiratory infection is a name of several types of infection of lungs and airways Respiratory infections are the leading causes of disease globally. In most cases, respiratory viral infections are self-limiting and confined to the upper airways, where they evoke relatively mild symptoms such as sneezing and a runny nose. VRIs are caused by different viruses. VRIs spread through contact with mucus from the mouth or nose. VRI can be a serious illness for people who are already ill or weakened in some other way. Good hygiene practices, including hand washing, and covering the mouth and nose when coughing, can help prevent the spread of VRI. Symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, runny nose, sore throat, fever, trouble breathing. The person may also have a headache or sore muscle, or they may feel very tired
Sexually transmitted diseases are spread from person to person, which are transmitted through sexual contact. Some of infections are transmitted through oral and anal sex and also from sex toys. These diseases can be also spread through contact between the genitals of one person and the genitals, anus, mouth or eyes of another person. Mostly many STDs, are occurs in United States are herpes simplex virus type II, human papilloma virus, Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV. Some infections that can be spread by sex, such as the hepatitis B virus, are not commonly referred to as STDs because they are spread primarily by other means.Read More
Vector-borne viral diseases are transmitted by vectors such as ticks, lice, mosquitoes, biting flies. Some of vector borne diseases like Dengue fever have long been present worldwide and such as West Nile meningoencephalitis are re-emerging as global public health threats. Other important VBVDs include Chikungunya fever, Rift Valley fever, Hantavirus haemorrhagic fever, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. By the changing of environment fast-paced globalization, many VBVDs are increasing to treat human health and protest to preventing of effective diseases and controlling it Resisting of vector borne viral diseases requires collective research attempts on basic research on the virus-host interaction and host immune responses, antiviral and vaccine development, epidemiology, transmission and vector controlRead More
Viral infection during pregnancy has been begin with a few noticeable exceptions, such as heroes virus and once the immunosuppressed , the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation where the immune system is necessary to support the growing fetus and the mostly occurring the viral infections are the toxoplasmosis, rubella, cmv,and the hsv and the cytomegalovirus it is the frequently transmitted to a child before birth with a symptom of the fever and the cmv is the risk infection to the unborn baby, and the cmv is the member of the herpes virus group and this includes the chickenpox and the Epstein Barr virus and the infection was found in the urine, saliva , blood, semen, and in the breast milk
Sometimes the diseases reappear in a new clinical form that may be severe or fatal. These are known as re-emerging diseases. A list of recent emerging infectious disease including the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreaks in West Africa and the Zika virus disease is also having higher priority in the Americas, have indicated the need for better understanding of which kinds of pathogens are most likely to emerge and causing of diseases in human populations. Emerging infectious diseases caused by large number of micro-organisms have been affecting some of regions, country and sometimes the entire globe from time to time occasionally or in the form of small explosion to global pandemic like swine flu. Many diseases which are considered to be no longer existence to threat the public health have once again begun to re-emerge.
Measles it is a highly contagious infection and it is caused by the measles virus and the initial symptoms will be the fever, cough , runny nose, and the inflamed eyes and the appearance of the spots are known as kopliks spots which may arise from inside the mouth two or three days after start of the symptoms and the common complications are like diarrhea, middle ear infection, and the pneumonia and then less commonly the the seizure’s, blindness, and the inflammation of the brain may occur and the measles is an air borne disease which may spread through cough, and sneezes of the infected person and measles is caused by a virus , a single strand enveloped RNA virus of belongs to the genus morbillivirus and in addition measles can suppress the immune system from months to weeksRead More
Noro virus sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug and it is the most common cause of gastroenteritis and the infection is characterized by the diahhera , vomiting, and the stomach pain and sometimes the fever or head ache may occur and in generally the lethargy, weakness, muscle aches and the low fever and the nor viruses are genetically diverse group of single stranded positive sense RNA , non-enveloped viruses belongs to the family caliciviridae and the nor viruses can genetically classified into the five different genogroups types they are the Gi, Gii, GII, GIV, GV and the genotype I ,II , the most prevalent human genogroup and whereas the genogroup I,II,IV will infect the humans, and the genogroup III, will infect the bovine speciesRead More
Zika virus is a member of the virus family flaviviridae and the infection is known as zika fever and is often have symptoms similar to dengue fever and it is a single strand positive sensory RNA and it is non-segmented and a positive sense RNA and it encodes several structural proteins encapsulates the virus and it develops a envelope glycoprotein that binds to the endosomal membrane of the host cell to initiate endocytosis and the genome forms a nucleocapsid along with copies of capsid protein and the virus will replicate and then inoculated into the human skin and the Langerhans cells and then it continues to spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream and the it replicated in the cytoplasm but it have been found in infected cell nuclei of itRead More
Ebola virus is also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever and it is caused by Ebola viruses and the symptoms usually starts from the three weeks after the infection starts and the vomiting’s, sore throat, muscularpain,diarrhea and the rash usually occurs and it is a single stranded noninfectious RNA genome and the genomes of five different Ebola viruses are BDBV, EBOV,RESTV,SUDV,AND THE TAFV and this virus cycle will starts with a virion attaching to a specific cell surface receptor and it is followed by fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes of itRead More
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