Scientific Sessions

Fungal infections

Fungi are member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. Approximately 300 fungi are known to be pathogenic to humans. Globally, 300 million people are afflicted with a serious fungal infections and 25 million are at risk of dying or losing their sight. Estimates for the global burden of fungal diseases are based on population and disease demographics (age, gender, HIV infected, asthma etc). Some fungal diseases are acute and severe such as cryptococcal meningitis and keratitis, other recurrent candida Vaginitis or oral candidiasis in AIDS and other chronic pulmonary aspergillosis or tinea capitis.
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Bacterial infections

Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on the Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of the Earth's crust. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in laboratory. The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered to be harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial, particularly in the gut flora. However, several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, and bubonic plague etc. The most common bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

Viral infections

A virus is small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of the other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals, plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. There are millions of type of viruses found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most numerous type of biological entity. Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response which eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which induce artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. Some viruses, including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis, evade these immune responses and result in chronic viral infections. Read More

Emerging diseases

Emerging infectious diseases are infections that appeared within a population or those whose incidence or geographic range is rapidly increasing or threatens to increase in the near future. Emerging infections can be caused by previously undetected or unknown infectious agents, known agents that have spread to new geographic locations, previously known agents whose role in specific diseases has previously gone unrecognized, re-emergence of agents whose incidence of disease has reappeared. Thus, this class of diseases is known as re-emerging infectious diseases. Read More

Infection control

Infection control stops or prevents the spread of communicable diseases in the health care settings. Infection prevention and control demands a basic understanding of the epidemiology of diseases, their risk factors that increase patient susceptibility to infection, practices, procedures and treatments that may result in infections. The risk of acquiring a healthcare-associated infection is related to the mode of transmission of infectious agent, the type of patient-care activity or procedure being performed and the underlying patient host defences. Healthcare workers should be vaccinated against preventive diseases such as hepatitis B. Read More

Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another person during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. They were really common and lots of people who have them don't have any symptoms which is dangerous, but the good news is that getting tested is not big deal, and most STDs are easy to treat. Some STDs can be spread through the use of unsterilized drug needles, from mother to infant during childbirth or breast-feeding, and blood transfusions. The genital areas are generally the moist and warm environments, ideal for the growth of yeasts, viruses and bacteria. Individuals pass on sexually transmitted diseases more easily when they are not using contraceptive devices, such as condoms, dams, and sanitizing sex toys. Read More

Epidemiology of infections

The object of epidemiology of infections is to identify the process of spreading infection in a population, which involves of source of infection, mode of transmission of infectious agent and the host. Ultimately the main aim of epidemiology of infections is to eradicate infections within a population. The agents which spread the infection are bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Prevention of spread of infection can be done by isolation or casual treatment of agent of infection, disinfection and increase resistance to population susceptible to agent (immunization) or prevent propagation of agent after infection (chemoprophylaxis). Read More

Respiratory infections

Respiratory tract infections are common, and is major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Viruses are responsible for about 90% of upper respiratory tract infections, and about 30% of lower respiratory tract infections, and 30% of lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory infections represent the third most frequent health problem for international travellers. The incidence is underestimated mainly because the majority of infections are mild. Several respiratory tract infections per year are common, due to the easy spread of a large variety of organisms via aerosol and droplet spread, as well as through contact with the objects on which other people may have sneezed. Travellers represent the primary vehicle of the yearly spread of influenza around the globe. Read More

Modes of transmission of infections

The mode of transmission of infections can be direct by another organism either a vector or an intermediate host and it can be transmitted indirectly which occurs when an inanimate object serves as a temporary reservoir for the infectious agent. The transmission of infection is passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of the other individual was previously infected. The six common ways in which infectious agent spread are one-to-one direct, indirect and droplet and non-contact airborne, vehicle, and vector borne. Read More

Vaccines for infections

Vaccines stimulate human body natural immune system to recognize and remember pathogens, so when they later encounter, they can be more easily destroyed and the disease can be prevented. Vaccines are the safest and more effective way to prevent infectious disease and they have  enabled worldwide eradication of many devastating diseases like polio and smallpox. However, vaccines have not yet been developed for some of the diseases such as HIV-1, malaria and tuberculosis. The active ingredients in vaccines are parts of the viruses or bacteria to which we make an immune response. Read More

Diagnosis and management of infections

Many infectious diseases have similar signs and symptoms and samples of our body fluids can sometimes reveal evidence of the particular microbe that cause illness. This helps the doctor tailor our treatment, knowing what type of germ is causing is causing illness makes it easier to choose appropriate treatment. Many infectious diseases such as cold will resolve on their own. Depending on the severity of infection, as well as which organ system is affected by the infection, doctor may refer to the specialist. The person who is infected should have detailed descriptions of symptoms, information of medical problems and all the medications and dietary supplements which he/she has taken. Read More

Tropical Diseases

Tropical disease is indigenous to tropical and subtropical areas of world or that occurs principally in those areas. The Greenhouse effect and increasing global temperature of the atmosphere seem to be influencing the spread of tropical diseases and vectors to the other latitudes that were previously spared them such as the Southern united states, the Mediterran area etc. The current tropical diseases include chagas disease, dengue, helminths, African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Lymphatic filariasis, Malaria, Onchocerciasis, Schistosomiasis, Sexually transmitted diseases, TB-HIV coinfection, and Tuberculosis.   Read More

Antibiotics

Antibiotics are used to treat some types of bacterial infection, they work by killing bacteria or preventing them from reproducing and spreading. Antibiotics work or viral infections such as colds and flu, most coughs and sore throats. Doses of antibiotics can be provided in several ways such as oral antibiotics, topical antibiotics, and infections of antibiotics and it is important to take antibiotics as prescribed by doctor. Some people may have an allergic reaction to antibiotics especially penicillin and cephalosporins. Apart from these antibiotics the other different types of antibiotics which are broadly classified are
aminoglycosides, tetracyclins, macrolides and fluroquinolines.
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Public Health

Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, public and private, communities, individuals and organizations. The public can be a small as a handful of people, an entire village or it can be as large as several continents, in case of pandemic. Public health aims to improve the quality of life through prevention and treatment of diseases including mental health. Common public health initiatives include promoting hand washing and breast feeding, delivery of vaccinations, suicide prevention and distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Modern public health practice include multidisciplinary teams of public health workers and professionals.   Read More

Global Healthcare

Global health id the function of various global diseases and their prevalence in the world and threat to decrease life in the present day. Global health employs several perspectives that focus on medicine, public health, epidemiology, demography, economics and other social sciences such as sociology, development studies, psychology, anthropology, cultural studies and law can help to understand determinants of health in societies. Read More

Outbreak of Emerging diseases

An emerging infectious disease is an infectious disease that has appeared in a population for the first time or that may have existed previously but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Outbreaks are the occurrence of disease cases in excess of what would normally be expected for a community or geographical area. Read More

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