Key facts: Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly kenned as Ebola haemorrhagic pyrexia, is an infrequent but rigorous, often fatal illness in humans. Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, infection obviation and control practices, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory accommodation, safe and dignified burials and gregarious mobilisation. Vaccines to bulwark against Ebola are under development and have been used to avail control the spread of Ebola outbreaks in Guinea and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Early ancillary care with rehydration, symptomatic treatment ameliorates survival. The Ebola virus causes an acute, solemn illness which is often fatal if untreated. The 2014–2016 outbreaks in West Africa was the most astronomically immense Ebola outbreak since the virus was first discovered in 1976. The outbreak commenced in Guinea and then moved across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia. The current 2018-2019 outbreak in eastern DRC is highly involute, with insecurity adversely affecting public health replication activities.
Symptoms: The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus symptoms are emanates from 2 to 21 days. Symptoms of EVD can be sudden and include: Fever, Fatigue, Aches and pain, Muscle pain, Headache, Sore throat.
This is followed by:
• Unexplained hemorrhaging, bleeding or bruising
• Abdominal (stomach) pain
• Symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function
• Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting
Diagnosis: It can be arduous to clinically distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid pyrexia and meningitis. Corroboration that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection are made utilizing the following diagnostic methods:
• Antibody-capture enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay
• Antigen-capture detection tests
• Serum neutralization test
• Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay
• Electron microscopy
• Virus isolation by cell culture.
Punctilious consideration should be given to the cull of diagnostic tests, which take into account technical designations, disease incidence and prevalence, and convivial and medical implicative insinuations of test results. It is vigorously recommended that diagnostic tests, which have undergone an independent and international evaluation, be considered for use