Scientific Sessions

Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by the microorganisms and the bacteria causing the infections are bacteria, viruses, fungi, and some other parasites  and the bacteria will  live inside and the outside the body some of the infectious diseases can be passed from one person to another person by the closely contact with the infectious person  and some are transmitted by the bites from insects or animals, and the mostly the spread of diseases will be occurring because of the improper hand washing continuous to be a  major factor in the spread of disease so, all should be cleaning of properly the hands to avoid of the infection Infectious diseases can be caused by

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Rare diseases

Rare disease also known as orphan disease. Which affect a small percentage of the population and specific issues are raised in relation to their rarity, the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases Research maintains a list of rare diseases, which are each generally considered to have prevalence of fewer than 200,000 affected individuals in the United States. Many rare diseases appear early in life and most rare diseases are genetic, and present throughout the person's entire life, even though if symptoms do not immediately appears. There are thousands of rare diseases. Up to now, Over 6000 rare diseases have been discovered and new diseases are regularly described in medical literature. Are diseases have been discovered and new diseases are regularly described in medical literature and symptoms that vary not only from disease to disease, but also from patient to patient suffering from the same diseases. There are 350 million patients are cause by rare disease globally. Only in US there are 30 million people with rare diseases. In the continent of Europe, there are 20 million people are with rare disease. In addition, symptoms differ not only from disease to disease, but also from patient to patient suffering from some disease. Due to the rarity, and diversity of rare diseases, research needs to be international to ensure that experts, researchers, and clinicians are too connected. Over 80% of rare diseases are had identified genetic origins whilst and others are the result of infections like bacterial or viral, and environmental causes, Providing care to love ones with a rare conditions takes of caregivers as well. On the survey respondents said they spend 37 hours per week providing care. 50% of rare diseases affect children with children who have rare conditions, caregivers spend an of average 53 hours per week to providing care by compared with 30 hours for general childcare The overall prevalence and heterogeneity of rare diseases result in many patients affected by these complex and life-changing disorders. This impact of recherche diseases on the day-to-day lives of patients, and their families is compounded by diagnostic delays, and a challenging environment for the development of therapies that target recherche diseases. Inhibited erudition of infrequent diseases may reduce the childhood of patients initiating treatment in a timely manner, while the high costs of running clinical tribulations and manufacturing drugs for a relatively minute number of patient’s designates that, when available, treatments are frequently extravagant.

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Communicable diseases

Communicable diseases or infectious diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi are can be spread by directly or indirectly from one person to another person in different ways. Some are spread through flies, insects, and also caused by ingesting contaminated food, or fluids. Some diseases can also be transmitted in more than one way. Example for Communicable diseases is included A, B and C, measles and other illnesses, skin diseases, infections, measles, sexual intercourse, tick-borne disease hygiene. From viral infection caused by bacteria to malaria and Ebola, these diseases can have an extraordinary impact on human health. It is important to planning and evaluation of diseases that take prevention and control program in medical therapy in common source. When children are together in group,such as schools,childcare facilities and sporting activities, some disease causing germs are easily to spread among them. It is very important to recognize when someone in a group is affected with sick with a communicable disease, so steps can be taken to obtain medical care and prevent the spread of disease to others. There are many ways prevent the spread of diseases through vaccinations to eliminate or reduce diseases. We can slow are stop this type diseases by ensuring the food we eat and fluids that we drink and also avoiding sick people

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Molecular virology

Molecular virology is the study of viruses on a molecular level. Viruses are responsible for many of the world’s most serious diseases. Viruses are submicroscopic parasites that replicate inside host cells. They are heavily dependent on the host cell to develop a whole arsenal of strategies to exploit cellular functions to overcome innate and adaptive. Antiviral defense and to ascertain the production of infectious virus progeny. The detection of viral pathogens has grown at an astounding rate, especially in the past two decades. Viral vaccines contain inactivated viruses which have lost their ability to replicate. These vaccines can prevent lower the intensity of viral sickness. Nevertheless, there have been ongoing viral outbreaks in past few years affecting millions of people all around the globe. Therefore, the advanced and understanding of the molecular virology and viruses are needed to develop of new vaccines, and the control of ongoing/future viral outbreaks. Viruses are responsible for many of the world’s most serious diseases. Although viruses are focus of intensive research over the past two decade. The Molecular Virology and Entomology Research group undertakes strategic and applied research for controlling pests, and diseases of tropical food crops especially those caused by viruses and insect vectors on cassava, sweet potato, yams and vegetables in many African and Asian countries. Molecular virology is the study of viruses on a molecular level. Viruses are submicroscopic parasites that replicate inside host cells. The detection of viral pathogens has grown at an astounding rate, especially in the past two decades. Viral vaccines contain inactivated viruses which have lost their ability to replicate. These vaccines can prevent lower the intensity of viral sickness. Nevertheless, there have been ongoing viral outbreaks in past few years affecting millions of people all around the globe. Therefore, the advanced and understanding of the molecular virology and viruses are needed to develop of new vaccines, and the control of ongoing/future viral outbreaks. The Molecular Virology group is also committed to improving acute contagious febrile disease, especially of cloven-footed animal vaccines to alleviate the economic impact has on smallholders in endemic countries. Vaccination remains the most effective approach for controlling however, virus instability, the requirement for vaccines to ecologically match circulating strains and sub-optimal vaccine production seriously hamper control efforts in endemic country's requirement for vaccines to ecologically match circulating strains and sub-optimal vaccine production seriously hamper control efforts in endemic countries.  Most of the research involves using an animal studies, and also use information from host and viral genomes to determine viral virulence. Plant virology, which is the study of viruses, and how they affect plants, most of the research here involves using an animal studies, and also use information from host and viral genomes to determine viral virulence.

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Plant Virology

It is the field of plant pathology, and it deals with viruses and virus like pathogens and diseases the structure of virus is given by it's coat of proteins, which will surround the viral genome and all the plant viruses are in rod shaped, and its length will be dependent on the genome of it but its diameter is of 15-20 NM mostly plant viruses are RNA although some viruses are DNA viruses genomes are comprises in coding and non- coding region and the coding region is expressing the protein required to vital infection cycle and the plant viruses are harmless to humans and other animals some of are

·         Plant viruses

·         Viral vector biology and transmission

·         Sub- viral agents

·         Potato spindle tuber virus

·         Tomato infectious yellow crinivirus

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Veterniary Virology

Veterinary virology is the study of viruses in animals. It is a consequential branch of veterinary medicine. An emerging virus is a term applied to an incipiently discovered virus, one that is incrementing in incidence or with the potential to increment in incidence. Zoonotic infections are those which can be naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. Prion disease indicates a group of conditions that affect the nervous system in humans and animals. It deals about the viruses in the non-human animals and it is the paramount branch of veterinary medicine. They are more minuscule and simpler in construction than the unicellular microorganisms, and they contain only one type of nucleic acid either DNA OR RNA. as they not have ribosomes, mitochondria, they are consummately depends on their cellular hosts for energy engenderment and the protein synthesis and they consists of single stranded, negative sense RNA which will infect plants and animals and they consists of incipient genera and in apthoviruses they consists of positive strand RNA and it is non-enveloped and in the arteriviruses they have the positive sense RNA genome and these supplement ally have a enveloped core and influenza have only the RNA  in it. The genomes of viruses are more diminutive than those found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and in most viruses the nucleic acid is present in a single molecule. The genomes of viruses are of two types: single and double-stranded and viruses can contain either RNA or DNA. Due to these viruses are of three main groups predicated on their nucleic acid composition: DNA viruses, RNA viruses and viruses.

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Modes Of Transmission Of Diseases

Viral infections spread based on  the ability of viruses  to overcome the multiple barriers  and move from cell to cell  and the transmission can also be indirect,  another organism  either any of the microorganisms  and the indirect transmission could involve zoonoses or more typically , larger pathogens like macro parasites with more complex life cycles  and the infectious diseases can be transmitted in two ways  from one individual to another in the same generation and by either contact indirectly through  air or sneeze that allow transmission of person to person and the transmission of pathogens  occurs in various  ways  physical , contaminated food, body fluids, air borne,

Contact transmission includes commonly transmitted through direct person-to-person of direct contact transmission. Here the agent is transmitted by physical contact between two infected person touches or exchanges body fluids with someone else, osculating, sexual contact, contact with oral secretions, or contact with body lesions. . Diseases spread exclusively by direct contact are unable to survive for paramount periods of time away from a host. Sexually transmitted diseases are virtually always spread through direct contact, as they are prodigiously sensitive to drying; direct contact transmission requires physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person, and the physical transfer of microorganisms.

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A non-communicable disease

 A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a disease that cannot be transmissible directly from one person to another person. NCDs include Parkinson's disease, autoimmune diseases, strokes, most heart diseases, most cancers, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, and others. NCDs are the leading cause of death globally. Risk factors increased risk of diseases or infection) such as a person's background, lifestyle and environment increase the likelihood of certain NCDs. Every year at least 5 million of people are dying because of tobacco use about of 2.8 million die from being overweight. High cholesterol accounts for roughly 2.6 million deaths and 7.5 million die because of (Hypertension) high blood pressure

Risk factors increased risk of diseases or infection such as a person's background, lifestyle and environment increase the likelihood of certain NCDs. Every year, there are 5 million people die because of tobacco use and about 2.8 million die from being overweight. High cholesterol accounts for roughly 2.6 million deaths and 7.5 million die because of (Hypertension) high blood pressure. The four main types of NCD are cardiovascular diseases like asthma, heart attacks and stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and diabetes. What are the most common non-communicable diseases? Some non-communicable diseases are more prevalent than others.

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Anti-microbial vaccines

Antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or to keep something from happening. Antimicrobial kill or slow the spread of microorganisms. Its work at a cellular level to continually prevent to the growth of microorganisms. By creating an inhospitable environment for microorganisms like bacteria, mold and mildew, its protect everyday products, Antimicrobial agents, commonly called as antibiotics, and vaccines have been two cost-effective and proven technological tools that revolutionized humanity's battle with infectious diseases. The impacts of these interventions have been phenomenal in reducing mortality and morbidity across the world. These are widely hailed as the two greatest accomplishments of modern medicine which have saved the most lives globally both the vaccines, and the antibiotics act against causative agents of infectious diseases. There are five main antibacterial drug targets in bacteria: cell-wall synthesis, DNA gyrate, metabolic enzymes, DNA-directed RNA polymerase and protein synthesis. However, their mechanisms of action and some other characteristics differ. Antibiotics are therapeutic tools, and vaccines are preventive that have been responsible for elimination/eradication. Antibiotics are short-acting tools and vaccines accord long-duration memory. The combinations of these tools have been phenomenally successful in containing infectious diseases. These two tools, along with sanitation and safe water, brought down significantly the incidence of infectious diseases during the last century in many developed countries. The success was mainly due to the continuous development of newer and efficacious antibiotics during the 1960s. Impressed with the impact of antibiotics, the then Surgeon General of the USA made a famous statement that the 'time has come to close the book on infectious diseases.' However, as we know, it was not to be. Infectious diseases continue to be major individual and public health challenges in most countries of the world. Two reasons for these are survival instinct of bacteria and indiscriminate the use of antibiotics, which is the greatest driver of making bacteria resistant. The survival instinct in bacteria generated several mechanisms in bacteria that conferred resistance to antibiotics. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for global action on AMR, supported worldwide by the governments, health ministries and health agencies. It also will provide perspectives on how vaccines could be more effectively used in this effort. Antimicrobial and the associated morbidity and mortality due to bacterial pathogens have been increasing globally to alarming levels.  Vaccines, along with other approaches, can help reduce AMR by preventing infections and reducing antibiotic use. Industry and governments must focus on development of novel vaccines and drugs against resistant infections to successfully reduce AMR. Antibiotics kill indiscriminately, whereas vaccines are highly targeted. Antibiotics are used to treat severe infection, where else vaccines prevent infections from ever becoming establish.

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Dignosis Of Viral Infections

The viruses are very small particles of genetic materials, and these are surrounded by the protein coat some viruses have a fatty envelope covering and the viruses cannot reproduce without the assistant of host cell and the virus will make the copies of itself and bursts the host cell and the viral infections can be spread by the direct transformation of the nose droplets, by coughing and by close contact with the infected person, so, the virus can be easily spread from one person to another easily by it and in this, the viruses will have the RNA and the DNA and the detection of this is done by polymerase chain reaction mechanism is used.

 The different viral infections caused by the different viruses the ross river virus is a single stranded RNA. it is spread by a mosquito, and then finding of Rota virus vaccine which is used for diarrhea treatment, and this vaccine can prevent the 15-34% of the infections occurring and the vaccine is licensed for USA and after the using of other countries about 70-80% of effective preventing of severe diarrhea can be prevented and the reaches are going for the bovine reasserting vaccine developed by Albert kapikian, and they take under consideration all the countries are undergoing the trials on it for the development of the vaccine for the Rota virus vaccines from serum institute of India are currently taking the clinical trials, and these are made to control of the disease and some viral infections can be cured by the diagnosis by taking of samples and then checking of the sample then giving some vaccines against the disease nowadays.

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Sexually Trasnsmitted Diseases

They are also known as sexually transmitted infections or venereal diseases. It is a disease which spreads through a by having sex, and it can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites, and the viruses caused disease is the human papillomavirus, and it can spread through the sex and effect the anus, and genitals, and the other infection is the hepatitis viruses, and the infection caused to liver and the three common types are the hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and the hepatitis C and this is more serious, long-lasting the problem and the bacteria caused by disease is chlamydia, and it is the most common in the world, and it causes the permanent damage to women’s reproductive system if is not treated properly and then gonorrhea it infects the genital, mouth, eyes and it will spread through blood to infect the body’s joints and the syphilis it damages the organs in their body

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Viral pathogenesis

Viral Pathogenesis is the study of how the viruses can cause diseases in their targeted hosts, and it is the specialized study in the virology and it customarily spread by the replication, and the different pathogens are bacteria, fungi, prionic, algal, and this is having the dank so, mostly the pathogenic bacteria sexual interaction occurs between cells of the same species and by the process the transformation of disease takes place from one person to another by the bulwark mechanism additionally term pathogen came into used to describe the infectious microorganism such as bacteria, fungi, and one of the pathogenic bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which has been killed approximately Two million, people a year, estimated about 54 million people preserved by the efficacious treatment and the treatment includes people should be hygienic, and they should take the nutrient pabulum, should wash hands adore taking the aliment and approximately about thousands of people are dying, and in 2002 a more expeditious method was shown to assemble the 5386- base genome of the bacteria, and the giant Mimi virus,in some sense an intermediate between diminutive prokaryotes and mundane viruses, was described in 2003 apart from the threat of it the medical nonwovens predominantly emanates from the risk of nosocomial infections, and approximately the ecumenical medical non-woven disposable market to reach 20.9 billion by it.

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Pathology

Pathology is the study that effect of disease or injury, especially of the structural abnormalities produced by disease. The word pathology also refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of organisms such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings. The three broad sub types of pathology are anatomical pathology, clinical pathology, and molecular pathology.

History of Pathology

Pathology has a history back in ancient days. The ancient Egyptians are one of the earliest known cultures to document this disease and its effects on organs of the body. Ancient scrolls of papyrus contain information on bone injuries, parasites, and lumps that may have cancer, later on, starting in the 5th Century BC, the Greek physician Hippocrates had an influence on medicine and pathology. Many ancient Greek writers who were inspired by Hippocrates recorded detailed information on wounds, tumors, and diseases. Additionally, animal dissection began to be practiced. Hippocratic ideas then spread to Rome. During the middle Ages, scientific progress slowed over all. The biggest revolution in pathology was the emergence of the microscope in the 19th Century. Now, for the first time, cells as to be studied in full detail. By understanding the disease changed from studying entire organs to focusing on individual cells. With the development and increased by microscopes, pathology research increased exponentially and led to huge scientific advancements such as organ and tissue transplants.

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Mycology

Essentially, mycology is the study of fungi. Here, mycologists directly focus on the taxonomy, genetics, application as well as many other characteristics of this group of organisms. Currently, over 50,000 species of fungi have been identified in different environments across the globe. While some are free-living and have no impact on human beings and other animals, some are either beneficial or harmful making it necessary to study and understand them. This has not only made it possible to develop treatments for diseases caused by specific species of fungi, but also use certain species in a variety of industries pharmaceutical, food, agriculture and alcohol among others. Until the 1800’s, it was assumed that fungi were simply a different kind of plant. Mushrooms, the reproductive bodies of fungi, were eaten, used as medicine, and used for their hallucinogenic effects since antiquity. By the mid-1800 the microscope was invented, and scientists began to examine the inner workings of fungi. Microscopes revealed that fungi had distinct features, separate from both plants and animal cells. Mycology is the discipline of biology that describes and studies a very prodigious group of organism’s denominated fungi.  There are over 100,000 species of fungi. Mycologists are the scientists who study fungus. Medical mycologists study drugs to cure fungal infections, while agricultural and research mycologists study the industrial uses of fungi., the fungal kingdom one of the most consequential in the tree of life. Fungi are very variable, because they include both macroscopic such as mushrooms, truffles and puffballs and microscopic organisms. All of them share some mundane characteristics. They are non-motile heterotrophic Eukaryotas that possess a cell wall around the cell, which differs from the cell wall of plants because it contains different components.

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Emerging Virus

The term emerging virus was coined by scientists in the 1990s to describe the agent of an incipient or antecedently unrecognized infection. The term implicatively insinuates that emerging viruses are incipient; however this posits is erroneous. Incipient virus infections have been emerging for thousands of years, at least since the elevate of agriculture 11,000 years ago. The development of agriculture and commerce provided the sizably voluminous populations needed to sustain human infections such as measles and smallpox. Sometimes the diseases reappear in a new clinical form that may be severe or fatal. These are known as re-emerging diseases. A list of recent emerging infectious disease including the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreaks in West Africa and the Zika virus disease is also having higher priority  in the Americas, have indicated the need for better understanding of which kinds of pathogens are most likely to emerge and causing of diseases in human populations. Emerging infectious diseases caused by large number of micro-organisms have been affecting some of regions, country and sometimes the entire globe from time to time occasionally or in the form of small explosion to global pandemic like swine flu. Many diseases which are considered to be no longer existence to threat the public health have once again begun to re-emerge. HIV is the clearest example of a previously unknown virus that has now produced one of the largest pandemics in history. In recent years there has been increasing attention paid to the changing patterns of infectious diseases. It is estimated that the majority – some estimates place it as high as 75%, of these emerging diseases are derived from animals.  

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Respiratory Viral Infection

VRI is a general term for lung and airway infections. Read about different viruses that can cause VRI and treatment options. the infection is classified as the upper respiratory tract infection or lower respiratory tract infection and the upper respiratory infection are pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis,  certain type of influenza, and the common cold and the lower respiratory tract infects the bronchitis , and the symptoms include the cough, sore throat,  runny nose, low –grade fever, and sneezing  and the usually rhinovirus in children begins usually after 1-3 days after exposure and the normal changes in mucous discharge to yellow or green is the normal indication for URTI and the normally the infection occurs. Viral respiratory infections are spread when an infected person verbalizes, coughs or sneezes minute droplets containing infectious agents into the air. The droplets in the air may be inhaled by those nearby. The viruses are additionally spread by direct contact with a sick person or indirect contact with hands, tissues or other articles soiled by nasal perceiver and throat discharges. Enter virus and adenovirus infections are also spread through contamination of hands or objects with infected faces.

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Small pox

Smallpox was an infectious disease also known as transmissible disease or communicable diseases caused by one of two viruses variants the last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977, the World Health Organization is certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980. The risk of death following contracting the disease was about 30%, often those who survived had extensive scar of their skin and some include those who have a decreases ability to see. The date of the appearance of smallpox is resolve. It most likely develops gradually from a terrestrial African rodent virus between 68,000 and 16,000 years ago. The wide range of dates is due to the different records used to calibrate the molecular time. Mostly smallpox which spread from Asia between 400 to 1,600 years ago. Mild smallpox described from the American continents and isolates from West Africa which separate between 1,400 and 6,300 years before present. A group of organisms believed to comprise all the evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor to further diverge into two subclades at least 800 years ago. It suggests that the archeologist and historical evidence is very incomplete. Such diseases include many of considerable importance in both human and veterinary medicine usually droplets expressed from the oral, nasal, of an infected person. The virus can be transmitted through the air by the droplets that escape when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks, usually within a distance of Six feet, but could also be spread through direct contact with infected body fluids, and also through clothing, smallpox was spread by virus carried in the air enclosed in public places this virus can be transmitted throughout the illness, but this happened most frequently during the first week of the rash. Smallpox vaccination within three days will prevent or significantly lessen the severity of smallpox symptoms in the vast majority of people. The vaccine uses to live virus that's related to smallpox, such as infections affecting the heart or brain Vaccination four for seven days after exposure can offer some protection from disease or may modify the severity of disease The potential risks of the vaccine outweigh the benefits, in the absence of an actual smallpox outbreak. Smallpox was highly contagious, has generally spread more slowly and less widely than some other viral diseases. The overall rate of infection was being affected by the short duration of the infectious stage. In temperate areas, the number of smallpox infections was highest during the winter and spring.

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Bacteriology

Bacteriology is a branch of microbiology dealing with the study of bacteria. Bacteriological is a study of  postoperative wound infections after head and neck surgery have demonstrated that these infections a number of specialization  among are agricultural, soil, bacteriology; clinical diagnostic bacteriology; industrial bacteriology; marine bacteriology; public-health bacteriology;  hygienic, bacteriology; and systematic bacteriology, which deals with taxonomy. The more important advances made in medicine and surgery in late years have been dependent upon, or more or less connected with, discoveries and practical work in bacteriology.  The beginnings of bacteriology paralleled the development of the microscope. In the connection of microorganisms to disease in the nineteenth century, when Robert Koch a German physician introduced the science of microorganisms to the medical field, these can be seen with a simple lens magnifying about 100–150 diameters. Bacteriology played an important role in the development of the fields of molecular biology and genetics. The more important advances made in medicine and surgery in late years have been dependent upon, or more or less connected with, discoveries and practical work in bacteriology, But really, there is far less diversity among animals than there is among say, the Proteobacteria.

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Vaccines

Most people who get vaccinated will have protection against the disease. Vaccines protect you from a number of diseases that can be been very harmful and even deadly. Vaccination as a necessary in showing the immune system which looks like similar to a particular virus or bacteria, which helps the immune system, be stronger when it is fighting against the real infection. His word vaccine, and vaccination, actually comes from the name for a pox virus, the cowpox virus, vaccine, to be exact. Vaccines are safe, and very effective. Because they’re the best given to the millions of healthy people protection against many serious diseases. But why did this wonderful tool of immunization, which constitutes one of the greatest hits in the entire history of medicine. A vaccine helps the body’s immune system to recognize and fight with pathogens like viruses and bacteria, which then keep us safe from the diseases that they cause. The first vaccine was introduced by British physician Edward Jenner in 1796, used the cowpox virus to confer protection against smallpox. However, the people suffering from smallpox to protect against the disease. While some developed immunity, others developed the disease.  The contribution to use a substance similar to, but safer than, smallpox to confer immunity.  The resource the relatively rare situation in which immunity to one virus confers protection against another viral disease. Vaccines are dead organisms or purified products conclude from them. There are so many types of vaccines in use. These represent different planning and try to reduce the risk of illness while keep in possession or used to induce a beneficial immune response.

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Measles

It is a highly contagious infection and it is caused by the measles virus and the initial symptoms will be  the fever,cough,runny nose, and the inflamed eyes and the appearance of the spots are known as kopliks spots which may arise from inside the mouth two or three days after start of the symptoms and the common complications are like diarrhea, middle ear infection, and the pneumonia and then less commonly the the seizure’s, blindness, and the inflammation of the brain may occur and the measles is an air borne disease which may spread through cough, and sneezes of the infected person and measles is caused by a virus , a single strand enveloped RNA virus of belongs to the genus morbillivirus and in addition measles can suppress the immune system from months to weeks and this will contribute to bacterial super infections such as otitis media and pneumonia and the mode of transmission is by cough or sneeze it spread and the measles virus can live up to two hours in air space and if the other person breathe the contaminated air or touch the infected person surfaces then their eyes, nose will become infected and the treatment. measles vaccine given within 72 hours of exposure and a dose of immune proteins called immunoglobulin, taken within the six days of exposure  and the treatment will be the acetaminophen to reduce  the fever and the  humidifier  to ease a cough  and sore throat and the vitamin a supplements also and the diagnosis by the examining of skin rashes  and checking  the symptoms of the disease  such  as white spots in the mouth, fever, cough, and sore throat  and the other complications are like ear infection,  bronchitis, blindness, and during pregnancy it may lead to the complications like miscarriage or preterm labor.

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Vector Bone Viral Infection

Vector-borne viral diseases are transmitted by vectors such as ticks, lice, mosquitoes, biting flies. Some of vector borne diseases like Dengue fever have long been present worldwide and such as West Nile meningoencephalitis are re-emerging as global public health threats. Other important VBVDs include Chikungunya fever, Rift Valley fever, Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. By the changing of environment fast-paced globalization, many VBVDs are increasing to treat human health and protest to preventing of effective diseases and controlling it

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Zika virus

Zika virus is a member of  the virus family flaviviridae and the infection is known as zika fever and is often have symptoms similar to dengue fever and it is a single strand positive sensory RNA  and it is non-segmented and a positive sense RNA and it encodes several structural proteins encapsulates the virus and it develops a envelope glycoprotein that binds to the endosomal membrane of the endosomal membrane of the host cell to initiate endocytosis  and the genome forms a nucleocapsid along with copies of capsid protein and the virus will replicate and then inoculated into the human skin and the Langerhans cells and then it continues to spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream  and the it replicated in the cytoplasm but it have been found in infected cell nuclei transmission will be by the primarily by the monkeys in as so called enzootic mosquito cycle, and then transmission to humans and in highly it will spread in a mosquito –human –mosquito cycle, and the primarily by the aedes aegypti mosquitos , and also by the sexual contact and then through blood transfusion and in sexual mostly by men to women and during pregnancy mother to child and it may causes  the changes in the in the neuronal development of the brain and then congenital abnormalities  and then by the diagnosis is accomplished  using both molecular and serological methods  and the testing will be confirmed by the urine test or blood test can confirm by it or by saliva testing  and the prevention involves decreasing of mosquito bites in areas where the disease occurs so the proper use of condoms and then proper covering of body with clothing and getting rid of the standing water  where the mesquites reproduce they and the paracetamol may help with the symptoms.

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Zika virus

Zika virus is a member of  the virus family flaviviridae and the infection is known as zika fever and is often have symptoms similar to dengue fever and it is a single strand positive sensory RNA  and it is non-segmented and a positive sense RNA and it encodes several structural proteins encapsulates the virus and it develops a envelope glycoprotein that binds to the endosomal membrane of the endosomal membrane of the host cell to initiate endocytosis  and the genome forms a nucleocapsid along with copies of capsid protein and the virus will replicate and then inoculated into the human skin and the Langerhans cells and then it continues to spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream  and the it replicated in the cytoplasm but it have been found in infected cell nuclei transmission will be by the primarily by the monkeys in as so called enzootic mosquito cycle, and then transmission to humans and in highly it will spread in a mosquito –human –mosquito cycle, and the primarily by the aedes aegypti mosquitos , and also by the sexual contact and then through blood transfusion and in sexual mostly by men to women and during pregnancy mother to child and it may causes  the changes in the in the neuronal development of the brain and then congenital abnormalities  and then by the diagnosis is accomplished  using both molecular and serological methods  and the testing will be confirmed by the urine test or blood test can confirm by it or by saliva testing  and the prevention involves decreasing of mosquito bites in areas where the disease occurs so the proper use of condoms and then proper covering of body with clothing and getting rid of the standing water  where the mesquites reproduce they and the paracetamol may help with the symptoms.

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Zika virus

Zika virus is a member of  the virus family flaviviridae and the infection is known as zika fever and is often have symptoms similar to dengue fever and it is a single strand positive sensory RNA  and it is non-segmented and a positive sense RNA and it encodes several structural proteins encapsulates the virus and it develops a envelope glycoprotein that binds to the endosomal membrane of the endosomal membrane of the host cell to initiate endocytosis  and the genome forms a nucleocapsid along with copies of capsid protein and the virus will replicate and then inoculated into the human skin and the Langerhans cells and then it continues to spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream  and the it replicated in the cytoplasm but it have been found in infected cell nuclei transmission will be by the primarily by the monkeys in as so called enzootic mosquito cycle, and then transmission to humans and in highly it will spread in a mosquito –human –mosquito cycle, and the primarily by the aedes aegypti mosquitos , and also by the sexual contact and then through blood transfusion and in sexual mostly by men to women and during pregnancy mother to child and it may causes  the changes in the in the neuronal development of the brain and then congenital abnormalities  and then by the diagnosis is accomplished  using both molecular and serological methods  and the testing will be confirmed by the urine test or blood test can confirm by it or by saliva testing  and the prevention involves decreasing of mosquito bites in areas where the disease occurs so the proper use of condoms and then proper covering of body with clothing and getting rid of the standing water  where the mesquites reproduce they and the paracetamol may help with the symptoms.

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Zika virus

Zika virus is a member of  the virus family flaviviridae and the infection is known as zika fever and is often have symptoms similar to dengue fever and it is a single strand positive sensory RNA  and it is non-segmented and a positive sense RNA and it encodes several structural proteins encapsulates the virus and it develops a envelope glycoprotein that binds to the endosomal membrane of the endosomal membrane of the host cell to initiate endocytosis  and the genome forms a nucleocapsid along with copies of capsid protein and the virus will replicate and then inoculated into the human skin and the Langerhans cells and then it continues to spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream  and the it replicated in the cytoplasm but it have been found in infected cell nuclei transmission will be by the primarily by the monkeys in as so called enzootic mosquito cycle, and then transmission to humans and in highly it will spread in a mosquito –human –mosquito cycle, and the primarily by the aedes aegypti mosquitos , and also by the sexual contact and then through blood transfusion and in sexual mostly by men to women and during pregnancy mother to child and it may causes  the changes in the in the neuronal development of the brain and then congenital abnormalities  and then by the diagnosis is accomplished  using both molecular and serological methods  and the testing will be confirmed by the urine test or blood test can confirm by it or by saliva testing  and the prevention involves decreasing of mosquito bites in areas where the disease occurs so the proper use of condoms and then proper covering of body with clothing and getting rid of the standing water  where the mesquites reproduce they and the paracetamol may help with the symptoms.

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Norovirus

Noro virus  sometimes referred to  as the winter vomiting bug  and it is the most common cause of gastroenteritis and the infection is characterized  by the diahera, vomiting, and the stomach pain and sometimes the  fever or head ache may occur and in generally  the lethargy, weakness, muscle aches and the low fever and  the nor viruses  are genetically diverse group of  single  stranded  positive sense  RNA  , non-enveloped   viruses  belongs to the family caliciviridae  and the nor viruses  can  genetically classified into the five different genogroups  will infect the bovine species  and the mostly noroviruses that infect the humans belong to the  genogrooup  GI AND GII  and the noroviruses will infect the by the replicating of the with the small intestine and in generally the transmission will be by the direct  transmission of person to person and then to next by the indirectly transmission by the water and then by the food and by the contaminated surfaces or through the surfaces of air and by the sharing of food material and in sometimes the infect ion is spread even you clean up  the virus continue to be shed after symptoms have subsided and shedding can be detected many weeks after infection the treatment and the noroviruse don’t respond to antibiotics which are designed to kill bacteria and to prevent dehydration make sure to drink the plenty of liquids, especially water, and juices  and the symptoms of  dehydration include dizziness , when standing the dry mouth, and the peeing legs and the diagnosis is routinely by the  polymerase chain reaction  where the results will give in few hours  and next test by taking of stool sampling of it and then further the testing of with Elisa that use antibodies against a mixture  of  nor virus strains are available commercially but they lack the sensitivity and specificity. Norovirus spreads facilely from People with Norovirus illness can shed billions of Norovirus particles. And some of few virus particles can make other people sick. You can get Norovirus illness many times in your life because there are many variants of Nepoviruse. This may explicate why so many people of all ages get infected during Norovirus outbreaks. Additionally, whether you are susceptible to Noro virus infection is additionally determined in part by your genes.

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Ebola

Ebola virus is also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever and it is caused by Ebola viruses  and the symptoms usually starts from the three weeks after the infection starts and the vomiting’s, sore throat, muscular pain, diarrhea  and the rash usually occurs and  it is a single stranded  noninfectious RNA genome and the genomes of five different Ebola viruses are BDBV, EBOV,RESTV,SUDV,AND THE TAFV  and this virus cycle will starts with a virion attaching to a specific cell surface receptor and it is followed by fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membrane’s  and the viral RNA  polymerase encoded by the L gene ,partially uncoats the  nucleocapsid and then transcribes  the gene into the positive strand M-RNAS,  which are then translated   into structural  and non-structural  proteins   newly synthesized   structural   proteins  and their   genomes  self-assemble and accumulate  near the inside of the cell membrane  and the mode of transmission involves the direct contact with an infected wild animal or fruit bat , besides bats another infected animals like monkey species, gorillas, and duikers  and the disease spreads by the direct contact with the blood or other body fluids  of a person and the virus includes saliva, mucus, vomit, sweat, breast milk, and urine, it will be initially decreases the white blood cell count followed by an increased white blood count  and the specific diagnosis is confirmed by isolating virus,  detecting  its  proteins , or detecting antibodies against the virus in a person blood and then isolating the cell culture detecting the viral by polymerase chain reaction and then  proteins by Elisa are the methods for the early stage detection .And the treatment will be by providing the fluids and maintaining their blood pressure and then replacing last blood and providing the oxygen needed

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For Program Enquiry: rare diseases@genoteq.org
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Abstract Deadline
30/11/2020